KHAIRPUR





KHAIRPUR
Khairpur remained Princely State of Sindh till merging with Pakistan in 1955. The city is located in northern Sindh on the left bank of River Indus. The city borders with Shikarpur and Sukkur in North, India in East whereas, Sanghar and Nawabshah in South, and Naushahro Feroze and Larkana in West. River Indus makes north-western border splitting it from District.
Previous History
Khairpur State was princely state of British India on Indus River in northern Sindh. The city established as capital for the Sohrabani branch of Talpur reign, and was established shortly after Talpur ascendancy in 1783. Other Talpur dominions were conquered by British in 1843, Khairpur state entered into treaty with British, thereby maintaining some of its autonomy as princely state. However, the last Mir of Khairpur decided to join Pakistan in 1947.
The state command was relinquished to Mir Rustam 'Ali Khan on death of his father Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur, (founder of Khairpur) in 1811.  However, his youngest step brother, 'Ali Murad, reinforced him by signing agreement with British government during 1832 and got appreciation as independent ruler of Khairpur in exchange for granting control of foreign relations to British in 1838 alongwith use of Sindh's roads and Indus River. His position had been little more than that of a regent during his father's lifetime. His decision did not save him from internal family disputes and British initially refused to treat or take sides in the dispute
Rustam ruled until 1842, when relinquished in favor of his brother Mir Ali Murad. Ali Murad assisted British during 1845 - 47 however he was later accused for plotting against British in 1851-52, and so was exposed of his lands in upper Sindh by British East India Company. Resultantly, remaining land which was under his control, consisted mostly of Khairpur city, He again acquired favour of British government and in 1866, British government promised to recognize any future successors as rightful rulers of Khairpur.  However, Ali Murad's rule remained continued until his death in 1894.
The state was later succeeded by Ali Murad’s second son Mir Faiz Muhammad Khan and he also remained in power until his death in 1909; He was succeeded by his son, Mir Sir Imam Bakhsh Khan Talpur. He aided British war effort during World War I, therefore, he was awarded honorary title as “Lieutenant Colonel” in 1918. He expired in 1921 and was succeeded by HH Mir Ali Nawaz Khan. He abolished feudal Cherr system of forced labour as well new canals were also build for irrigation during his governance.
Mir Faiz Muhammad Khan II took over state on death of Mir Ali Nawaz Khan in 1935 and he had also suffering from unstable and nervous troubles, therefore, remained a nominal leader. Khairpur government organized council of regency under local ministers who passed orders for Mir to live outside the state. Subsequently, after twelve years, shortly before transfer of power; in Jul 1947, he abdicated in favour of his young son Mir George Ali Murad Khan. The young Mir had reached his majority and received full ruling powers only in four years earlier. State remained on the first in sub-continent for introducing full adult voting system. His objective during his governance were free education up to matriculation,  free healthcare, no customs duties, property, income or wealth taxes. The crime rate also remained negligible as well as light industries grown up.
Current Situation
Currently, Kahirpur is headquarters of district Khairpur under Sukkur Division and it has eight tehsils, 76 UCs, 11 towns and 6800 villages.  The city 12th largest city of province as per Census held in 2008, whereas, the district Khairpur hold 5th largest position in the province., Khairpur District holds 2,405,523 of population with 67.69% rural areas vide census 2017 and 2.8% population growth rate. District Khairpur is covered in 15910 Sq kms which makes it third largest district of province following by Tharparkar and Thatta. The district is equal to 11.3% area of province and 1.8% of country.  The district holds 93% of population of sindhi Language speaking persons whereas remaining population speak Punjabi, Urdu and Balochi languages. The district holds 97% Muslims of its population remaining with Hindu, Christian etc. Literacy rate of the district is 90%  whereas, literacy rate amongst adults (above 15 year) is 43% with the ration of 62% male. The district is holds 7th deprived district amongst Sindh’s Districts.
river Indus lies in east of Khairpur, Kingri, Sobhodero and Gambat Taluka and this area is covered with thin forests. As per District Flood Relief Plan 2008, 120,000 peoples live in riverain areas and is prone to flooding. Khairpur’s desert zone includes great Nara desert. This area is faced by continuous droughts and remained most severely hit areas during 1999-2002. Dust storms especially in desert zone are common phenomenon amd hamper locals from growing summer crops and damage wooden or mud houses. It has also been reported many times that livestock is sometimes also lost and people took refuge at other place.
The household sanitary conditions in terms of availability of latrine inside the house appears to be much better compared to other districts under study. No urban and 5% rural houses are without latrine facility of any kind. 3/4th of the rural households compared to 1/4th urban ones have non flush latrine facility. When it comes to the availability of flush latrine, Khairpur has 8th rank out of 16 districts of Sindh. However, this rank remained 15, having some considerable improvement in the household sanitary conditions during 2004-05.
Khairpur holds the highest number of Health Units and making it second number having Rural Health Centers in province due to having second highest talukas following Thatta. However majority of the people prefer to consult private health centre. As per report of PSLM 2006-07, 82% of urban areas and 70% of rural areas take private health facilities.
Khairpur District contains considerable quantity of mineral resources especially having gas oil and. However locals complains that employment opportunities on these resources are given either on favoritism or outside of district.

Khairpur plays an important role in economy of province and country in form of agricultural productions, mineral and Livelihoods Land Utilization. As per survey of Development Statistics Sindh during 2006, Khairpur holds 22 mineral resources especially natural gas. The district is the biggest producer of dates and bananas in Sindh. Likewise the district is the 2nd and 3rd largest produce of wheat and cotton respectively in Sindh.  The agriculture sector thus stands extremely important for the economy of district and improvement made in and issues faced by the agricultural sector directly effect majority of the district population.

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