Sukkur City, The Historic City of Sindh


Sukkur City which has ever remained hub of business and provided many opportunities to Sindhi 

Sukkur is the third largest city in Sindh province of Pakistan, located on the western bank of the Indus River in Sukkur District. Sukkur derives from the Arabic word Sukkur which means severe or severe. In the 10th century, the Arabs conquered Sindh, and in Sukkur they faced severe hot and cold weather, which they called Sukkur, and the word became Sukkur in the local language. Sukkur is also known as the River Dino (River Dino) or River Gift. Sukkur Province is the central city of Sindh.
The region around Sukkur has been inhabited for millennia. The ruins of Lakhueen-jo-daro, located near an industrial park on the outskirts of Sukkur, date from the Mature Harappan period of the Indus Valley Civilization, between 2600 BCE and 1900 BCE.
Old Sukkur was initially a small village prior to the establishment of a military garrison in 1839. Sukkur was built on a low limestone ridge on the banks of the Indus River. The city was once surrounded by groves of date palms that were traditionally believed to have grown from the discarded date-pits from Arab invaders in the 8th century. The village of Sukkur was directly across from the larger town of Rohri, which served as a busy port along the Indus by the 1200s, and was a major trading centre for agricultural produce. An 86 foot tall minaret was built at Sukkur's shrine of Mir Masum Shah in 1607.
Modern Sukkur, or New Sukkur, was built during British rule alongside what was once a small village directly across from the historic city of Rohri. The British established a military garrison here in 1839, which was abandoned in 1845, though Sukkur continued to grow in importance as a trading center. The Sukkur Municipality was constituted in 1862.
Completed in 1889, Sukkur's Lansdowne Bridge connects the Sukkur to Rohri across the Indus, and was one of the first bridges to cross the river. The bridge made the journey between Karachi and Multan easier. The bridge was built with two large pylons rather than a series of pillars extending across the river - a cutting-edge design for such an expansive span. The bridge was also made of metal, and features an unusual design.
The Sukkur Barrage (formally called Lloyd Barrage), built under the British Raj on the Indus River, controls one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. It was designed by Sir Arnold Musto KCIE, and constructed under the overall direction of Sir Charlton Harrison between 1923 - 1932. The 5,001 feet (1,524 m) long barrage is made of yellow stone and steel and can water nearly 10 million acres (40,000 km2) of farmland through its seven large canals.
On the eve of the Partition of British India in 1947, Sukkur's old town was home to about 10,000 residents, while New Sukkur was home to 80,000. The population of Sukkur is estimated at over one million. There four tehsils of District Sukkur i.e Sukkur, Rohri, Salehpat and Panu Akil.
The total area of ​​Sukkur city is 5165 sq km. Ghotki and Shikarpur districts are located north of Sukkur, Shikarpur in the west, Khairpur in the south and Ghotki in the east.
According to the 1998 census, the population of Sukkur district was 9.88 thousand. From 1981 to 1998, the annual rate of population growth was 2.88%
The majority of the population of Sukkur is Muslim and comprises 96.13% of the district's population, while the proportion of Muslims in rural areas is 97.30% and in urban areas 95.01%. The largest minority is the Hindu community, which accounts for 3.18% of the total district population. In rural areas, Hindus are 2.29 percent and urban areas are 4.04 percent. The Christian rate is 0.51%. In addition, there are Qadianis and other minorities.
According to the 1998 census, the mother tongue of the majority of the district is Sindhi while the second major language is Urdu. Sindhi is spoken by 74.07% of the total population of the district, while 92.01% in rural areas and 56.74% in urban areas. Urdu is spoken by 13.82% of the total population of the district while in rural areas it is only 1.71%. 25.53% of the urban population speaks Urdu. Apart from this, 6.63% people are Punjabi, 1.53% people are Pashto, 1.47% people are Balochi, 0.99% of people are Seraiki and 1.49% of people speak other languages.
Sukkur's literacy rate is 46.62%. The proportion of males is 59.83% and females 31.22%.
Indus river passes in the northwestern part of Sukkur. It passes between Sukkur and Rohri, where Sukkur Barrage is located.
Sukkur weather is dry and warm but quite windy. The warm season starts from April to October. Summer temperatures reach 44 degrees Celsius, while winter temperatures range between 9 and 23 degrees Celsius. Precipitation is 0.59 to 25.62 mm. The district receives about 88 mm total rainfall.
The majority of the district's vegetation consists of herbs, which are common throughout the province. There is a lack of grass foliage and plants other than trees. In these plants, "sar" is important, which is most often found along the river and along the branches that flow from the canals. Half and bush musks are also found in the trees. The 'ak' is also a plant that grows in relatively less fertile soil.
Until recently, Sukkur was filled with wildlife, especially the old tombs and the hill cave were a mix of bats. With the increase and spread of the population, wildlife has become quite extinct. Insects are also found here in considerable numbers, while sparrows are rarely seen. In addition to this, foxes, deer and rabbits are also found. Birds are common in wilderness areas while saris and elbows are common in wheat fields.
The economy of Sukkur is largely dependent on agriculture and agriculture depends on the Indus and its canals. The Indus River is the only river passing through Sukkur. The major Kharif crops grown in the district include rice, cotton and peanuts. During the rabi season, wheat, gram, peas are grown.
Good breeding buffalo, cows are present throughout the district. Panu Aqil is famous for its horses. As per 1996, the district has 170517 buffaloes, 56218 sheep, 272 172 goats, 6781 camels, 4541 horses, 690 donkeys, 15 482 mules and 41717 662 other pets.
Among the major industries of Sukkur are the cotton industry, cement, leather, tobacco, cigarette, paint, pharmaceutical, agricultural tools, taps and locksmiths, sugar, biscuits etc. Other small industries include sawdust and other industries. A large number of industries are located in Tehsil Sukkur, while the cement factory is located in Pano Aqil. In addition, small industries are located in different areas of the district, including printing, boat making, fish strings and plastics.
District Sukkur is not rich in minerals. Salt and stone are the two minerals found here. In Sukkur and Rohri, stone kilns are used for the construction of roads.
Sukkur City is one of the main trading centers of Sindh province. The main commercial items here are flour, cement, tobacco, cigarettes, medicines, agricultural tools, leather goods, textiles and so on. Sukkur is considered as a trading center for the dried fruits of Balochistan and Afghanistan. Sukkur city is also known for biscuits and pickles.
Roads and trains play an important role in transportation. Sukkur city is on the national highway from Karachi to Peshawar and through it is connected to other cities of the country. To travel from Sukkur to Quetta, Jacobabad has to go. There is also an airport in the city. The city has recently been connected with Punjab Province through Motorway.

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