Insects Attack on Crops and Biological Methods

Insect Attack on Crops and Biological Methods


Pakistan is an agricultural country and its economy is largely dependent on agriculture but unfortunately Pakistan has never achieved its desired production target, largely due to the invasion of crops by various insects and crop failure Compensation is damaging. The use of toxic drugs for their immediate prevention is currently common. Now that many countries have completely abandoned the sprays of these pesticides, as their toxic effects not only cause air pollution but also poison food items, causing Countless health problems are arising. To deal with this serious problem, the scientific world has introduced biological methods in the field of agriculture.

In fact, it is through this method that life itself is used against life. Biological countermeasures Ecosystems and other life can be easily saved only by eradicating certain species at a particular time. This is a very useful method. This natural pest has no effect on the growth of predators and parasites, they continue to function. In this way, the air is not polluted and there is no effect of poison on the crops and it can be easily used on the crops. Even at current prices, the cost of this method is much lower than that of poisonous pesticides and the results are very durable and long lasting. Unfortunately, pesticides are widely used in Pakistan, which has not only boosted the immunity of insects.

Pakistan has a higher mortality and morbidity rate than other countries. Against this background, the only effect of the pesticides that we do on unscrupulous crops is that we temporarily save crops and produce, but in the process they continue to dissolve the poison in our soil. Are, which is impossible to imagine. This poison will be no less than a world war for our future generations. How can this be prevented? And what are the steps that can be taken to find a solution to this problem? The word biological control was first used by Harry Soothe Smith in 1999. After that, the concept gradually grew and in 1945, Dr. Greathead used insectivorous and parasitic insects against a variety of insects to obtain about 25 percent of the results, and from there the concept of biological countermeasures was further strengthened, although in ancient times, the first rodents to be eaten in 900 AD (Leaf used against chewing insects), then in 1200AD completely controlled the date palm in Yemen. Since then, the notion has been reinforced, and history has shown that 1792, 1929, 1945, 1888, 1898, these biological agendas will have a regular status and are recognized as biological agendas, according to a recent survey. About 250 million tons of food is desperately needed and keeping this need in mind, the only way to increase and save production in a matter of seconds is by spraying pesticides which is not only a waste of money but also countless others. It is tantamount to causing problems. The following techniques are used for biological procedures: Classical control has all the natural agents that are introduced into the affected areas that are already there, while the natural agent is largely omitted in augmentation. They also increase the number of natural agents already in the field.

The third stage of biological control involves conservation. In this way the government is active in activating the activities of natural agents and their numbers. There are three ways you can use natural agents in the field. For example, seed traditional, soil application and foliar application. There are different types of biological agents in Pakistan in collaboration with CABI. These include Entomopathogenic, Predator, Parasitoid, Bacteria, Virus, Protozoan and Nematodes. Parasitoids It usually enters the body of an insect during its development and kills it. Common examples include the Trichogramma type of wasps. Tetrastiches, on the other hand, damage up to 60% of Pyrilla eggs. Larva parasitoids contain appendages known as Cotasia species.

It is very effective against Helicoverpa and Rice call Midge while in Pupal Parasitoids Xanthopimpla is used against Coconut Black Headed while Epiricana Spp is used against juvenile and adult of Pyrilla. Predators are included. These harmful effects are part of your diet. In this group, different types of Chryscperla are successfully used against Aphid, Whitely and Thrip. About 50,000-10,000 eggs are used. Bacteria are also very important biological agents.

A specific Bacillus thringiensis is used against Larva Helicoverpa. In addition, the results of Bt bacteria are very effective against Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and these insects are easily controlled by bacteria. Research trials are underway in Europe, Australia and many other countries. Bt bacteria are very effective against insects that attack our crops, including cabbage, eggplant, tomatoes, cotton and sunflower. As far as the virus is concerned, one of the most important types is the Nuclear Polyhedrisia Virus, also known as NPV. It actually affects the mid-gut of insects, causing their transmission and communication system. I get interrupted and he gives up his normal activities and goes to the brink of death, in which he is being tested on various insects for more effective results. As far as entomopathogenic is concerned, so far Two species of beauveria and Metarhizium are used against Lepideptera, Ortheptera and Coleoptera. It is being used with 0% successful results. Recently, trials against locust heart are being conducted in different districts.

This fungus actually enters the host's body very quickly and begins to show its effects. Infected, the insect slows down, gradually giving up all activity, and soon dies. The white powder on his body can tell the appearance of this fungus. As soon as the spore enters its body, the insects release food etc. Insects attacking sugarcane, cotton, tomato, cabbage, peas, gram and other efficient crops can be easily controlled with the help of EPE.

Protozoans kill insects directly or gradually destroy their reproductive capacity and have a detrimental effect on the lives of adults. Protozoans have a very long larval life, which Biological control has not achieved such a significant status, however, its special properties, including Nosema, Farinosytis, can be used effectively against Beetle. Nematodes are commonly found underground and are known as endoparasitic endoparasitic creatures. Specific species include Steinernema, Heterorhabditis, and Mermis is used against Grasshopper and Locusts.

One thing is clear from the use of these biological agents that they do not cause any side effects. There are many benefits to using them. It is a low cost, long lasting use, it provides full time benefits to crops. It does not produce any kind of material in plants. It is easily absorbed into the soil and as a result increases the fertility of the soil and the yield of the crop. The biological agent is very easy to use and guarantees significant results on a large scale. To this end, all the government sources should be involved in using all the latest technology for the effective production of these agents. Supply to the farmers at affordable prices and for their release, workshops, cinemas etc. should be organized on regular basis.

In order to highlight the basic concept of Biological Center Unit in the country, all the universities and research institutes where they are working on Reuriny Mass should be equipped with modern machines and facilities to further improve and complete supply and time. Research funds should be provided to them on an emergency basis keeping in view the restrictions. The program should be nationally acclaimed. At the same time, small biological units should be set up in the village, so that the common farmer can have access to them and unemployment can be eliminated from the country.

Post a Comment